Response to emergencies is by its very nature characterised by urgency. During a nuclear or radiological emergency (NRE), radiation protection professionals may need to perform quick radiation dose estimations in order to inform medical management of affected individuals.
Methods and step-by-step algorithms for emergency dose estimation have been published and relevant sources are provided below (see references section). It is clear however, that even the implementation of simple algorithms, can be challenging in stressful emergency situations. In stress, the mere task of looking up the proper coefficients for dose calculations increases the probability for error. Access to needed information may also be hampered in case of emergency.
The Emergency Radiation Dose Assessment App (EmRadDose) aims to streamline the steps of typical dose calculations, needed to guide medical management of affected people, in case of NRE. EmRadDose was created as a stand-alone, off-line tool that may be installed on any Android device (most widely available mobile operating system). It includes information and detailed in-app guidance, needed for quick dose calculations. At the same time, the algorithm steps are clearly organised in order to reduce the probability of calculation errors. At the moment the app provides calculators for the following calculations:
- Effective dose due to external irradiation (point source)
- Committed effective dose due to inhalation of radionuclides
- Committed effective dose due to radionuclide contaminated
EmRadDose is an open source tool and it is provided free of charge under the “GNU General Public License v3.0“.
EmRadDose can be downloaded from Google Play Store at:
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google LLC.
Scientific Reviewers and Contributors
In alphabertical order:
- Armin Ansari, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA
- John Damilakis, University of Crete, Greece
- Mats Isaksson, University of Gothenburg, Sweden
- Fridtjof Nüsslin, Technical University of Munich, Germany
- Steve Sugarman, Summit Exercises and Training, USA
- Hugh Wilkins, Medical Physics and Radiation Protection Consultant, UK
EmRadDose is an open source tool. This means that EmRadDose may be modified and remixed freely by following the license terms. The code may be found at the following repository: https://github.com/tberris/EmRadDose.
EmRadDose: A Tool for Radiation Protection Professionals
It should be noted that EmRadDose is intended to be used by trained radiation protection experts, as it requires a good understanding of NREs. The app includes some of the most important dose calculators and also provides links to other resources and tools used for emergency dose assessments. The scientific sources/references are cited appropriately for easy verification of the methods used. The user is encouraged to explore all relevant references and tools mentioned in the app. provides full step by step guidance and proper explanations in every step. . include steps which can increase the probability of errors during the operational conditions of a nuclear or radiological emergency.
- International Atomic Energy Agency. Generic Procedures for Medical Response During a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency, EPR-Medical 2005. IAEA, Vienna (2005).
- International Atomic Energy Agency. Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency, EPR-First Responders 2011. IAEA, Vienna (2006).
- International Atomic Energy Agency. Preparedness and Response for a Nuclear or Radiological Emergency, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSR Part 7, IAEA, Vienna (2015).
- Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS). Early Internal and External Dose Magnitude Estimation. REAC/TS, Oak Ridge, TN (2015).
- Sugarman, S.L., Toohey, R., Goans, R., Christensen, D. and Wiley, A., 2010. Rapid internal dose magnitude estimation in emergency situations using annual limits on intake (ALI) comparisons. Health physics, 98(6), pp.815-818.
- Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS). The Medical Aspects of Radiation Incidents. REAC/TS, Oak Ridge, TN (2015).
- Smith, D.S. and Stabin, M.G., 2012. Exposure rate constants and lead shielding values for over 1,100 radionuclides. Health physics, 102(3), pp.271-291.
- Toohey, R.E., Bertelli, L., Sugarman, S.L., Wiley, A.L. and Christensen, D.M., 2011. Dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides via contaminated wounds. REAC/TS, pp.1-625. Ver. 2 Aug 2014
- Unger, L.M. and Trubey, D.K., 1982. Specific gamma-ray dose constants for nuclides important to dosimetry and radiological assessment (No. ORNL/RSIC-45/Rev. 1). Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA).